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Book Review: Artificial Intelligence Engines: A Tutorial Introduction to the Mathematics of Deep Learning | AI Deep Learning - insideBIGDATA

We’re seeing a rising number of new books on the mathematics of data science, machine learning, AI and deep learning, which I view as a very positive trend because of the importance for data scientists to understand the theoretical foundations for these technologies by .
Artificial Intelligence Engines: A Tutorial Introduction to the Mathematics of Deep Learning
In the coming months, I plan to review a number of these titles, but for now, I’d like to introduce a real gem: “Intelligence Engines: A Tutorial Introduction to the Mathematics of Deep Learning,” by James V. Stone, 2019 Sebtel Press. Dr. Stone is an Honorary Reader in Vision and Computational Neuroscience at the University of Sheffield, England.
The author provides a GitHub repo containing Python code examples based on the topics found in the book. You can also download Chapter 1 for free HERE.
The main reason why I like this book so much is because of its tutorial format. It’s not a formal text on the subject matter, but rather a relatively short and succinct (only 200 pages) guide book for understanding the mathematical fundamentals of deep learning...
I would recommend this tutorial to any data scientist wishing to get quickly up to speed with the foundations of arguably the most important technology discipline today. The best time to move ahead with your education is now with this great resource!
Source: insideBIGDATA  

How to Market Online Courses Using Your Website, Email, and Social Media | Sales & Marketing - Business 2 Community

Ellie Diamond, Author at Business 2 Community recommends, Since COVID-19 turned the world upside down, education providers all over the world have shifted to online learning. 

Photo: Business 2 Community

This transition means a lot of changes, including different ways of marketing your courses. But how do you figure it all out when you’re already so busy keeping your organization afloat?

Here’s the good news: People love online courses. Even before COVID-19 hit, experts were predicting that the online education market would be worth $350 billion by 2025.

Marketing your courses just means reaching those people who are already looking to learn something new. Fortunately, the best tools are cost-effective and probably already at your disposal. Read on to learn how to market online courses using social media, email, and your website...
Now that you’ve learned how to sell online courses using your website, email list, and social media, you can create your first campaign. Start by reading through The Download , our comprehensive guide to digital marketing for education providers.
Where will inspiration strike for you? Maybe your first step will be revamping your website or launching a Facebook campaign to promote a course that starts soon. Just as you do when developing courses, keep your focus on your (potential) students when deciding how best to reach them and you’ll know which way to go. After all, you know your students best!
Read more... 
Source: Business 2 Community

Online Education: A Way Forward Into The Future Or Not? | K12 - BW Businessworld

E-learning, as the name suggests, depends on the accessibility and openness of technology, yet practically no accessibility of such nature is a huge task to work on before turning to the online industry by Sunita Gandhi,  Founder, Global Classroom Private Limited (GCPL) & Global Education & Training Institute (GETI).

Online Education: A Way Forward Into The Future Or Not? Photo: Shutterstock

One of the many aspects of COVID-19 is its impact on India’s education system and industry in general. From unprepared teachers to online education to new education policy, it was all too much to soak in. However, many critics believe it to be a paradigm shift that the system was longing for? Or is it too early to say so? 
The lockdown has fastened the reception of technology in every sphere. E-learning, as the name suggests, depends on the accessibility and openness of technology, yet practically no accessibility of such nature is a huge task to work on before turning to the online industry. In an ongoing 2017-18 study, the Ministry of Rural Development found that about 47% of Indian family units get about 12 hours of electricity and over 36% of schools in India work without power. This implies while students from affluent families can explore the opportunities of online learning, those from oppressed backgrounds are probably going to capitulate to shortcoming and an absence of this transition, either in light of the detachment with the technology or the low-level of training of their parents to direct them through these applications. 
Schools and training institutes should initially take note of their current abilities and assets to go online or give distant learning services. This ought to incorporate an assessment of the accessible advancements and conveyance systems...
There is a basic need for investment in developing a framework for giving online training in much prosperous manner. Prompt measures are essential to diminish the impacts of the pandemic on bids for employment, entry-level position projects, and research projects. There is a need for establishing value confirming components and quality benchmark for internet learning programs that must be created and offered by Higher Education Institutions in India keeping this quick transition in mind.  
Source: BW Businessworld

Interface University and Other Scenarios for the AI Economy | Artificial Intelligence (AI) - EDUCAUSE Review

This article is adapted from David J. Staley, Alternative Universities: Speculative Design for Innovation in Higher Education, pp. 121–140. © 2019 Johns Hopkins University Press. Reprinted with permission of Johns Hopkins University Press.David Staley, Associate Professor of History, The Ohio State University argues, As artificial intelligence moves us to a world without work, what does that mean for higher education institutions and their mission in the new economy?
Photo: >Mark Pernice © 2020In March 2016, AlphaGo—a computer algorithm developed by Google's DeepMind—defeated Lee Sedol, one of the world's top Go players, 4 games to 1. The result was a worldwide sensation: twenty years after World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov was defeated by IBM's parallel-processing computer Deep Blue and five years after IBM's Watson easily beat the two best Jeopardy  champions, artificial intelligence had once again seemingly surpassed human intelligence.
At the time of Kasparov's defeat, many observers (myself included) wondered if a computer would ever defeat a human at Go.1 Chess is a complex game, of course, but at its heart, it is a game of logic and calculation. Given a particular board configuration, a player need only calculate all the possible combinations of moves and decide the best path among those choices. Computers are particularly good at brute-force calculation of this type, and thus it seemed inevitable that as computational power grew exponentially, someone would eventually create a device that could calculate more combinations faster than a human might.
Go, however, is not a game that is easily given over to brute-force calculation, and that is why so many of us thought it unlikely that a computer would defeat a human. Go, invented in China more than 2,5000 years ago, is a deceptively simple game: on a board with a grid of black lines (usually 19x19), two players alternately place black and white stones on the intersections... 
ConclusionIt is indeed possible that artificial intelligence will advance to such a degree that it achieves "general intelligence." Should that day arrive, it is likely that artificial intelligence will have taken over most jobs.18 In such a scenario, the nature and purpose of higher education will have irrevocably changed: higher education will have reverted to its pre-Morrill condition as a luxury, perhaps even a luxury for the many. But in such a scenario, college for human capital development—the guiding logic of higher education since the 1980s—would no longer be the rationale.
This is the less plausible scenario, however. Instead, artificial intelligence most probably will have reached the stage of development where it is replacing many human tasks, even complex cognitive tasks—but not every human task. The more likely future is one in which humans and artificial intelligence work in tandem to engage in cognition, in a division of labor between what artificial intelligence does better and what humans do better. Learning to cooperate, learning to think together, will become the raison d'être of higher education.


Source: EDUCAUSE Review

Building Relationships: How to Connect from a Distance | Online Education - Faculty Focus

“Keep teaching and learning.”This was still the motto of the pandemic, emphasiz Crystal Wong, Department of English Language and Literature.
Building Relationships: How to Connect from a DistancePhoto: Faculty Focus
Unlike spring 2020 when we shifted to remote teaching after students and faculty had the chance to know each other, this semester students will be arriving in our online classroom unfamiliar with the faculty, campus, or both. So, I expect the big challenge this fall will be building relationships with students.
Relationship building is critical to improving student learning (Webb and Barrett, 2014), yet it is hard work. Negative feelings about students may creep up from time to time, so we must start the relationship process by working on ourselves, and reflecting on our role as a teacher by examining how our personal and cultural experiences inform our teaching practices and biases of students (Patton, 2016). We must also appreciate the multiple intersecting identities students bring to the classroom and support them with a curriculum that affirms and embraces diversity (Mahiri, 2017). Concurrently, as a writing teacher, I draw from CCCC’s rationale on online writing instruction that students are motivated to learn when there’s a sense of belonging in the classroom. I also draw from faculty in SF State’s Writing Program who have researched undergraduate writers (Soliday and Trainor, 2016). Based on their research, students thrive when their writing courses maximize student engagement and agency, focus on students’ emerging identities, and provide welcoming pathways into academic communities. All of these principles underpin my teaching practice and have guided me to incorporate student connections in thoughtful ways.
What follows are three approaches for making connections to build relationships. The word “connect” means different things to different people; for me, connecting with students embodies a model of care, such as treating students with respect, making them feel welcome, and responding with compassion. When students know we care, they are more likely to reciprocate, and when they do, relationships are formed...
Lastly, I take a social approach to building a trusting environment.  When we were face-to-face, our presence was immediate with organic interactions, like greetings and small chats, reacting to a phone drop, freaking out over a buzzing mosquito, or turning to a neighbor for help. We can’t recreate these moments online, but we can show our presence in other meaningful ways. For example, we can open our online class with a “question of the day” that asks students to share a piece of themselves each week—their interest, talents, pets, playlist, upbringing, friends, family, social media, identities, future goals—and by the end of the semester, we come to see each other as a whole person. 
Source: Faculty Focus 

How the Internet of Robotic Things is helping supply chains to evolve in times of uncertainty | Features - ITProPortal

Robotics are being used across the supply chain to make things easier during the pandemic, as Stefan Spendrup, Vice President of Sales Northern and Western Europe at SOTI reports.
Photo: Melpomene / ShutterstockIn recent years, the Internet of Things has been hailed as a game changer for businesses. The Internet of Robotic Things (IoRT) is helping businesses to evolve even further. In just a few decades, industrial robots have become commonplace in factory settings across the world, and they only continue to gain popularity for their productivity and profitability.
Robotics have created a revolution in manufacturing. The cooperation between robots and IoT technology have enhanced supply chain operations, reducing the challenges of rising e-commerce demands and warehouse worker shortages, and streamlining industry processes in a more efficient and cost-effective way.
Robotics have long been successful in several structured industrial applications, due to their high level of accuracy, precision, endurance and speed...
IoRT is a concept in which intelligent technology can monitor and manipulate the events happening around them by fusing their sensor data and making use of local conditions to decide on a particular course of action of how to behave or control objects in the physical world.
Source: ITProPortal 

5 ways in which Artificial Intelligence is transforming education system | Artificial Intelligence - India Today

Here are some ways in which Artificial Intelligence (AI) is transforming education by India Today Web Desk.

How Artificial Intelligence is transforming education system
Photo: India TodayThe face of the education system has undergone a sea change in recent years. The present-day educational structure is competitive, challenging, and needs to be capable of meeting international benchmarks. The emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence, are changing our lives as they are being put to different purposes. And just like other areas, AI is disrupting and creating an impact on the education system as well. 
AI is making long strides in the academic world, turning the traditional methods of imparting knowledge into a comprehensive system of learning with the use of simulation and augmented reality tools...
Summing it upThe emerging technologies offer many promising aspects in the foreseeable future. They simplify a student's life through personalised learning. Automation of tedious tasks benefit teachers as they become more efficient and can focus on other crucial things.
However, the roles and competencies of teachers will have to be redesigned to create a win-win situation for all - students, parents and teachers. In India too, the online mode of education is being widely adopted with the Government of India planning to invest in AI-empowered online education with the goal to expand exclusive and high-quality education to the rural areas as well.


Source: India Today 

The Next Generation Of Artificial Intelligence | AI - Forbes

Rob Toews, venture capitalist at Highland Capital Partners notes, The field of artificial intelligence moves fast. It has only been 8 years since the modern era of deep learning began at the 2012 ImageNet competition. 
AI legend Yann LeCun, one of the godfathers of deep learning, sees self-supervised learning as the key to AI's future. © 2018 Photo: BLOOMBERG FINANCE LPProgress in the field since then has been breathtaking and relentless.If anything, this breakneck pace is only accelerating. Five years from now, the field of AI will look very different than it does today. Methods that are currently considered cutting-edge will have become outdated; methods that today are nascent or on the fringes will be mainstream. 
What will the next generation of artificial intelligence look like?


Source: Forbes 

Data analysts: Learn how to use Python, R, deep learning, more in these online courses | Big Data - TechRepublic

You don't need to work in the marketing depWith this eight-course training bundle, you'll also get hands-in instructions on AI, Google Data Studio, PyTorch, and artificial neural networks by .

Photo: gorodenkoff, Getty Images/iStockphoto

You don't need to work in the marketing department of Facebook or Google to understand the importance of large-scale data analytics when it comes to driving the modern economy. As the primary force behind everything from targeted advertising campaigns to self-driving cars, data analysis stands at the heart of today's most important and exciting technologies and innovations.

The Deep Learning & Data Analysis Certification Bundle will help you take your analytical skills to the next level so you can land the best and most lucrative positions in your field, and it's available today for over 95% off at just $39.99.With eight courses and 30 hours of instruction led by the renowned data scientist Minerva Singh, this bundle will get you up to speed with the latest platforms and methodologies in the interconnected worlds of data analysis, visualization, statistics, deep learning, and more...
This training bundle also takes a deep dive into the emerging worlds of artificial neural networks and deep learning platforms, which are being used by major tech companies in order to develop some of the world's most powerful computing frameworks and technologies.Read more...
Source: TechRepublic 

What is Deep Learning? A Simple Guide With Examples | Deep Learning - Analytics Insight

Adilin Beatrice, Author at Analytics Insight says, Deep learning is an imitation of actual human brain neurons and its functions.
Photo: Analytics InsightUnlike any other time, the past decade has seen unprecedented development in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI). There are a lot of talks on machine learning doing things humans currently do in our workplace. Deep learning is leading in some of the fronts of machine learning making practical changes.

Deep learningis an artificial intelligence function that imitates the working of the human brain in processing data and creating patterns for use in decision making. Deep learning is a subfield of machine learning concerned with  inspired by the structure and function of the brain called . It has networks capable of learning unsupervised or unstructured data. Deep learning is often known as deep neural learning or deep neural network.
Deep learning is often compared with the actual human brain functions...
Functions of deep learningDeep learning brings about an explosion of data in all forms and from across the globe. This large set of data, called big data, is collected from users interface in social media, internet search engines, e-commerce platforms, etc. This enormous data is considered as a data asset when it holds the details of an organisation or a company. Big data can be shared through applications like cloud computing.
Source: Analytics Insight 

Android Studio improves machine learning support | Mobile Development - InfoWorld

Android Studio 4.1 highlights include a database inspector and easier import of TensorFlow Lite models into Android apps by Paul Krill, editor at large at InfoWorld.
Photo: Igor Korchak / Getty ImagesGoogle’s Android Studio IDE team has released the stable version of Android Studio 4.1, featuring machine learning improvements and a database inspector.
With the 4.1 release, Android Studio improves on-device machine learning support via backing for TensorFlow Lite models in Android projects. Android Studio generates classes so models can be run with better type safety and less code. The database inspector, meanwhile, enables querying of an app’s database, whether the app uses the Jetpack Room library or the Android platform version of SQLite directly. Values can be modified using the database inspector, with changes seen in apps...
Introduced October 12 and accessible from developer.android.com, Android Studio 4.1 also makes it easier to navigate Dagger-related dependency injection code by providing a new gutter action and extending support in the Find Usages Window
Source:  InfoWorld

What Is Artificial Intelligence? | Explainers - ScienceAlert

Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to complex software that performs tasks in a way similar to human brains, often by sensing and responding to a feature of their environment. 

Photo: Yuichiro Chino/Moment/Getty Images

This could mean learning to solve problems in unexpected ways, recognising the nuances of speech, or exhibiting some form of human-like creativity.

Just as no single quality defines human thinking, no clear line differentiates more basic computer programs from AI. It can be thought of more as an ideal than a category - using our own penchant for learning and problem solving to inspire new technology and answers to some of our biggest and most complex questions...

Others, however, argue the biggest threat from AI will continue to be how humans choose to use it.Even seemingly innocuous forms of advanced AI can be used maliciously. Recently, computer scientists had to scale down a "chameleon-like" language prediction system saying it was too dangerous to release to the public.

Source: ScienceAlert 

Suggested Books Today | Books - Helge Scherlund's eLearning News

The importance of polynomials in the interdisciplinary field of mathematics, engineering, and science is well known. 

Download PDF Over the past several decades, research on polynomials has been conducted extensively in many disciplines.
  • Print Special Issue Flyer
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  • Cheon-Seoung Ryoo (Ed.)Pages: 152Published: October 2020(This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Polynomials: Theory and Applications that was published in MathematicsDownload PDF 
    Source: MDPI Books

    US game theory specialists win Nobel prize in economics | Nobel prizes - The Guardian

    Nobel Prize
    Photo: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Paul R Milgrom and Robert B Wilson won for designs of mathematical models that improve auction theory. Photo: Tt News Agency/Reuters The Nobel prize for economics was awarded on Monday to two US game theory specialists, 26 years after John Nash – the Princeton academic depicted by Russell Crowe in the 2001 film A Beautiful Mind – won for his groundbreaking work on the same subject.

    Americans Paul R Milgrom and Robert B Wilson won for the designs of mathematical models that promote “improvements to auction theory and inventions of new auction formats”, said Göran K Hansson, secretary-general of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Milgrom, 72, the Shirley and Leonard Ely professor of humanities and sciences at Stanford University, is one of the leading lights in auction theory, along with his Stanford colleague and thesis adviser Wilson, 83, the Adams distinguished professor of management...
    Nash developed the Nash equilibrium to analyse situations of conflict and cooperation and produce predictions about how people will behave. It found application in fields as diverse as computing, evolutionary biology and artificial intelligence. padding: 0px; text-align: left;">Last year’s award went to two researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a third from Harvard University for pioneering on-the-ground experiments to discover the most effective ways to tackle poverty in the developing world.
    Source: The Guardian 

    Which is more creative, the arts or the sciences? | Mind & Brain - Science Daily

    Summary: An expert in creativity and innovation is calling for schools and universities to increase their emphasis on teaching creativity, as new research shows it is a core competency across all disciplines and critical for ensuring future job success.

    Research confirms creativity is key for both by Jenny Qian, University of South Australia
    Which is more creative, the arts or the sciences?Photo: University of South Australia
    International expert in creativity and innovation, UniSA's Professor David Cropley, is calling for Australian schools and universities to increase their emphasis on teaching creativity, as new research shows it is a core competency across all disciplines and critical for ensuring future job success.
    Conducted in partnership with visiting PhD researcher Kim van Broekhoven from Maastricht University in the Netherlands, the research explores the nature of creativity in determining if specific differences exist between creativity in the sciences and creativity in the arts.The researchers found that creativity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is very similar to creativity in the arts, indicating that a holistic approach to teaching creativity in schools and universities, would benefit all...
    "As it turns out, creativity is general in nature -- it is essentially a multi-faceted competency that involves similar attitudes, disposition, skills and knowledge, all transferrable from one situation to another."So, whether you're in art, maths or engineering, you'll share an openness to new ideas, divergent thinking, and a sense of flexibility.
    Additional resourcesJournal Reference:
      Kim van Broekhoven, David Cropley, Philipp Seegers. Differences in creativity across Art and STEM students: We are more alike than unalikeThinking Skills and Creativity, 2020; 38: 100707 DOI: 10.1016/j.tsc.2020.100707
    Source: Science Daily

    The most valuable software developer skills in 2020 | Software development - ARNnet

    Scott Carey, Group Editor - B2B at IDG UK observes, We identify some of the hot areas where software developers can focus their attention to better stand out from the crowd in a challenging job market

    Photo: Andrew Neel
    As one of the biggest growth areas of the past decade, software development skills remain in high demand, even in today’s economy. But some skills are more desirable than others.
    Choosing the right ones to concentrate on is particularly important as the COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact the global job market. In the UK alone, the number of advertised software developer and software engineering roles were both down 33 per cent in July compared to the previous year, according to job board CV-Library.
    So which developer skills are the most valuable in today’s market?...
    Still, Java and JavaScript may be the most bankable programming languages to learn if you are just starting out. In fact, Java remains the second most-in-demand language for employers behind SQL, as per analysis from popular jobs site Indeed.
    Then there is Python, which has quickly risen up the skills ranks in the past decade. Python is popular with data scientists and stands as the third most-in-demand language, according to millions of US job postings on Indeed.com between 2014 and 2019...
    Formal education isn’t everythingFinally, it is important to remember that a formal computer science degree isn’t a necessity to get a job as a software developer in 2020.
    Source: ARNnet 

    Teachers play a critical role in shaping girls’ future as coders | Girls - Study International News

    This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article. In order to develop a stronger coding identity, girls need to have opportunities to develop and perform coding skills, emphasiz Roxanne Hughes, Director of the Center for Integrating Research and Learning (CIRL) at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (MagLab). 
    Photo: Vlada Karpovich from Pexels
    It doesn’t take long to help girls see a future for themselves in computer science, but it depends largely on how good their teachers are at recognising the skills the girls have in coding, which is basically writing language for computers. We found that girls ages 10 to 12 can come to see themselves as coders in as little as a week. And there are diverse roles within the world of coding that allow girls with various personalities and skill sets to see themselves as coders. However, if educators recognise girls only for when they play a background role and help others, but not when they are more assertive and confident, then they may not develop their assertiveness and confidence in a way that enables them to succeed as coders.
    To reach this conclusion, my colleagues and I focused on three girls from different backgrounds – one was Black, one was Hispanic and one was white – who participated in a one-week coding camp. We analysed over 40 hours of video footage from the camp, interviews with the girls and open-ended survey responses to determine how the camp influenced each girl’s coding identity – that is, their sense of belonging in the field of computer science and their potential for future success.
    We found that in order to develop a stronger coding identity, girls need to have opportunities to develop and perform coding skills... 
    What other research is being done Researchers at Florida State University and Auburn University have been studying how computer science education can be transformed to create more equitable learning environments for Black women and girls.
    Read more..
    Study International News 

    3 critical skills every successful data scientist needs | Skills - Siliconrepublic.com

    Thinking of becoming a data scientist? Here are three areas you should consider focusing on to set yourself up for success, according to Lisa Ardill, Senior Careers Reporter at Silicon Republic.

    Photo: © skif/Stock.adobe.com

    Data scientists with the right combination of skills are in high demand. But what are hiring teams on the lookout for? As with many roles, both technical expertise and soft skills are important. As data scientist Vin Vashishta writes, data science without soft skills has “limited value to the business”.
    An increasingly diverse skillset is proving essential to data science and its future...
    “These skills are drawn from across mathematics, statistics and computer science, but you don’t have to be a mathematician or a computer programmer to pursue careers in data science, artificial intelligence or any of the other STEM areas.”
    Read more... 
    Source: Siliconrepublic.com 

    How to Talk About Race at Work | Career success tips - The Learning Blog

    Kwame Christian, Negotiation & Conflict Resolution Training and Business Lawyer suggest, This is a time when race is at the height of human consciousness. 

    Team of people gathered around a table talking about race at work

    It’s a great opportunity for us to start to make strides towards equity and inclusion—in the world, and in our workplaces. Yet too often, fear can hold us back.  

    Whether you’re a person of color or an ally, you’ve probably faced a situation where you’ve wanted to engage, but felt it wasn’t worth the risk. You don’t want to make a mistake, or offend a colleague, or face political backlash from the company. 
    We can’t let this fear be a signal to avoid the conversation. Instead, we need to look at fear as a signal that the issue is important to us—and lean in.
    The next time you’re presented with an opportunity to have a difficult conversation about race with a colleague or with leaders at your company, try using the Compassionate Curiosity Framework. When emotions are high around complex topics, this three-step framework will give you a simple structure to follow so you can feel more comfortable and confident to engage when it matters most. Read more...
    Source: The Learning Blog 

    Research at Rochester: Sammartino’s mathematic explorations | Math - Campus Times

    The challenge was to find a square or prove that one cannot exist. “Most research in mathematics is scribbling on a whiteboard and banging your head in frustration.” says Hawraa Ahmed, Author at Campus Times.

    Photo: Courtesy NICOLE SAMMARTINOFrom May to August, while most UR students were enjoying their time off from classes, Nicole Sammartino spent her summers studying million dollar math problems. “They look so easy, but they’re actually very difficult,” she said. 

    Sammartino is currently a Take 5 Scholar who will be studying conservation biology, focusing on the “Extinction of Species from the Dinosaurs to Today.” After transferring to UR from Villanova University, Nicole switched her mathematics minor to a major. “Sometimes, math students are afraid of hard science, while biology students tend to be afraid of math, so I want to explore both.”

    Last summer, Sammartino worked as a research intern through UR’s Department of Mathematics under Dr. Alex Iosevich and Professor Ayla Gafni. The program, called “Grad STEM For All,” focuses on mentoring students from the Western New York area to pursue advanced degrees in mathematics and statistics...

    After the lecture series, she worked on her project and tackled complex “unsolved math problems” that can be found online. One of the problems she worked on was the magic square of squares,

    “Most research in mathematics is scribbling on a whiteboard and banging your head in frustration.”


    Source: Campus Times 


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